Critical enablers of Hotspot 2.0 adoption are higher speed Wi-Fi gateways and the adoption of the IEEE 802.11ac and the latest 802.11ax standards. Globally, the prevalence of IEEE 802.11ac, the latest Wi-Fi standard, will gain momentum from 2017 through 2022. By 2022, 86.9 percent of all Small Office Home Office (SOHO) Wi-Fi routers will be equipped with 802.11ac. IEEE 802.11n, which was ratified in 2007, provides a range of speeds that allow users to view medium-resolution video streaming because of the higher throughput. IEEE 802.11ac, with very high theoretical speeds, is considered a true wired complement and can enable higher definition video streaming and services with use cases that require higher data rates. The latest 802.11ax also called the High-Efficiency Wireless (HEW), has the goal of improving the average throughput per user by a factor of at least four times in dense user environments. It will enable dense IoT deployments. By 2022, 9.5% of total SOHO routers will be equipped with 802.11ax (Figure 20).
You don't have to be a professional photographer to sell your photos for money. People are constantly in need of high-quality, unique stock photography for websites, presentations, brochures, and so on, and are willing to pay for the right image. People generally search for images on stock photography sites like ShutterStock, Dreamstime, and iStockphoto by keywords, not by photographer name, so you have the same chance as anyone else of having your image selected. Just be careful not to post images of trademarked brands, copyrighted art, or people's faces that are readily identifiable unless you have a model release. Virtually anything else is fair game.
A Distributed-Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack occurs when multiple systems flood the bandwidth or resources of a targeted system, usually one or more web servers. Such an attack is often the result of multiple compromised systems flooding the targeted system with traffic. DDoS attacks represent the dominant threat observed by the vast majority of service providers. Infrastructure outages also continue to be a threat with over half of operators experiencing this issue. Peak DDoS attack size was 600 Gbps in 2017, down from 841 Gbps in 2016, according to Arbor Networks 13th Annual Infrastructure Security report. But 1H 2018 told a different tale, the peak DDoS attack size was a dramatic 1.7 Tbps, a 179 percent increase from 1H 2017. This was due to cybercriminals exploiting vulnerabilities in the Memcached protocol, resulting in record breaking amplification attacks. This has become a method that is increasingly popular since it does not require malware driven botnets. Average DDoS attack size in 2017 was 990 Mbps, a slight decrease from 1,133 Mbps in 2016, enough to take most organizations completely offline. However, since Memcached appeared, average attack size has increased 37 percent from 1H 2017 to 1H 2018.
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