After the number of Internet video users has been established, the number of users for each video subsegment must be estimated. It was assumed that all Internet video users view short-form video in addition to other forms of video they may watch. The number of Internet video users who watch long-form video (based partially on comScore Video Metrix figures for video sites whose average viewing time is longer than 5 minutes), live video, ambient video, and Internet Personal Video Recorder (PVR) is estimated.
Although the number of connections is growing 2.4-fold, global M2M IP traffic will grow more than sevenfold over this same period, from 3.7 EB per month in 2017 (3 percent of global IP traffic) to more than 25 EB by 2022 (6 percent of global IP traffic; refer to Figure 12). The amount of traffic is growing faster than the number of connections because of the increase of deployment of video applications on M2M connections and the increased use of applications, such as telemedicine and smart car navigation systems, which require greater bandwidth and lower latency.
In 2006, the most active sectors for affiliate marketing were the adult gambling, retail industries and file-sharing services.[21]:149–150 The three sectors expected to experience the greatest growth are the mobile phone, finance, and travel sectors.[21] Soon after these sectors came the entertainment (particularly gaming) and Internet-related services (particularly broadband) sectors. Also several of the affiliate solution providers expect to see increased interest from business-to-business marketers and advertisers in using affiliate marketing as part of their mix.[21]:149–150
Use your credit card’s cash advance feature. Some credit cards will allow you to withdraw a certain amount of cash by using it at an ATM. This can help you come up with cash in a hurry. However, the interest rates on cash advances are usually much higher than the credit card’s usual interest rate, meaning that you will eventually have to pay more.[24]

DDoS attacks can represent up to 25 percent of a country’s total Internet traffic while they are occurring (Figure 17). In 2017 the top motivation behind DDoS attacks was criminals demonstrating attack capabilities, with gaming and criminal extortion attempts in second and third place, respectively. The events from 2017 and the first quarter of 2018 once again demonstrated that the attackers are increasing their computing resources to perform DDoS attacks. Amplification attackers, who have tools for carrying out a DDoS attack, exploit vulnerabilities in the network and compute resources. Security vendors continue to make sure these attacks are financially unviable for the cybercriminals.

Become a dog walker if you live in an area where they are in demand. You can walk dogs for people who own dogs but who are too busy to walk them. However, this can be a demanding job, especially if you end up walking a few dogs at once or if you are walking dogs throughout the day, so ensure that you have the physical stamina for this type of job.[13]


Total Internet traffic has experienced dramatic growth in the past two decades. More than 20 years ago, in 1992, global Internet networks carried approximately 100 GB of traffic per day. Ten years later, in 2002, global Internet traffic amounted to 100 Gigabytes per second (GB/second). In 2017, global Internet traffic reached more than 45,000 GB/second. Table 1 provides a view of the historical benchmarks for total Internet traffic.

Anecdotal evidence supports the idea that overall use increases when speed increases, although there is often a delay between the increase in speed and the increased use, which can range from a few months to several years. The reverse can also be true with the burstiness associated with the adoption of tablets and smartphones, where there is a delay in experiencing the speeds that the devices can support. The Cisco VNI Forecast relates application bit rates to the average speeds in each country. Many of the trends in the resulting traffic forecast can be seen in the speed forecast, such as the high growth rates for developing countries and regions relative to more developed areas (Table 6).


In the past few years, service providers have observed a pronounced increase in traffic associated with gaming downloads. Newer consoles such as the Xbox One and PlayStation 4 have sufficient onboard storage to enable gamers to download new games rather than buy them on disc. These graphically intense games are large files, and gaming traffic will reach 4 percent of all IP traffic by 2022. Furthermore, these downloads tend to occur during peak usage periods, with gaming downloads reaching up to 8 percent of busy hour traffic. We expect the growth of gaming traffic to continue, and gaming is one of the forms of traffic that will limit the likelihood that video traffic will exceed the projected 82 percent by 2022.
Become a dog walker if you live in an area where they are in demand. You can walk dogs for people who own dogs but who are too busy to walk them. However, this can be a demanding job, especially if you end up walking a few dogs at once or if you are walking dogs throughout the day, so ensure that you have the physical stamina for this type of job.[13]
In corporate law and taxes, an affiliate is a company that is related to another company, usually by being in the position of a member or a subordinate role, a subsidiary. According to​ Investopedia, a subsidiary is a company "whose parent is a majority shareholder." (That means the parent owns 51 percent or more of the other company's shares of stock.
This article includes a general overview of types of affiliates and agreements. Every business situation is unique, so be sure to get help from an attorney in preparing any affiliate agreement. There may be "gotcha" clauses or language that you may not have seen or included. For example, if you are the affiliate, check to see what percentage of ownership, if any, the other company has in your business.

Affiliate agreements can be entered into by any type of business, from sole proprietor to corporation. Affiliating with another company is a good way to promote your business and make more money by joining with someone who has a proven track record and a larger customer base. But before you join an affiliate program of any kind, consider these questions (from Leslie Truex, Home Business expert).

Overall IP traffic is expected to grow to 396 EB per month by 2022, up from 122 EB per month in 2017, a CAGR of 26 percent (Figure 1). This growth represents a slight increase in expectations over last year’s forecast, which projected a CAGR of 24 percent from 2016 to 2021, driven by an increase in the growing share of mobile traffic as a percentage of the total IP traffic.
After MOU have been estimated for each sub segment of video, the next step is to apply kilobytes (KB) per minute. To calculate KB per minute, first the regional and country average broadband speeds are estimated for the years 2017 through 2022. For each application category, a representative bit rate is established, and this representative bit rate grows at approximately the same pace as the broadband speed. For video categories, a 7 percent annual compression gain is applied to the bit rate. Local bit rates are then calculated based on how much the average broadband speed in the country differs from the global average, the digital screen size in the country, and the computing power of the average device in the country. Combining these factors yields bit rates that are then applied to the MOU.
This article includes a general overview of types of affiliates and agreements. Every business situation is unique, so be sure to get help from an attorney in preparing any affiliate agreement. There may be "gotcha" clauses or language that you may not have seen or included. For example, if you are the affiliate, check to see what percentage of ownership, if any, the other company has in your business.
Internet of Things (IoT) is no longer a phenomenon, but it has become a prevalent system in which people, processes, data, and things connect to the Internet and each other. Globally, M2M connections will grow 2.4-fold, from 6.1 billion in 2017 to 14.6 billion by 2022 (Figure 10). There will be 1.8 M2M connections for each member of the global population by 2022.
Cost per action/sale methods require that referred visitors do more than visit the advertiser's website before the affiliate receives a commission. The advertiser must convert that visitor first. It is in the best interest of the affiliate to send the most closely targeted traffic to the advertiser as possible to increase the chance of a conversion. The risk and loss are shared between the affiliate and the advertiser.
There are shifts within Internet video traffic itself as well (Figure 14). In particular, live Internet video has the potential to drive large amounts of traffic as it replaces traditional broadcast viewing hours. Live video already accounts for 5 percent of Internet video traffic and will grow 15-fold to reach 17 percent by 2022. Also, of note is the growth of video surveillance traffic (dropcams). This traffic is of a very different nature than live or on-demand streaming and represents a steady stream of upstream video camera traffic, uploaded continuously from homes and small businesses to the cloud.
Cost per action/sale methods require that referred visitors do more than visit the advertiser's website before the affiliate receives a commission. The advertiser must convert that visitor first. It is in the best interest of the affiliate to send the most closely targeted traffic to the advertiser as possible to increase the chance of a conversion. The risk and loss are shared between the affiliate and the advertiser.
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