The rapid growth of mobile data traffic has been widely recognized and reported. The trend toward mobility carries over into the realm of fixed networks as well, in that an increasing portion of traffic will originate from portable or mobile devices. Figure 21 shows the growth in Wi-Fi and mobile traffic in relation to traffic from wired devices. By 2022, wired networks will account for 29 percent of IP traffic, and Wi-Fi and mobile networks will account for 71 percent of IP traffic. In 2017, wired networks accounted for 48 percent of IP traffic; Wi-Fi accounted for 43 percent; and mobile or cellular networks accounted for 9 percent of total global IP traffic.
Globally, devices and connections are growing faster (10 percent CAGR) than both the population (1.0 percent CAGR) and Internet users (7 percent CAGR). This trend is accelerating the increase in the average number of devices and connections per household and per capita. Each year, various new devices in different form factors with increased capabilities and intelligence are introduced and adopted in the market. A growing number of M2M applications, such as smart meters, video surveillance, healthcare monitoring, transportation, and package or asset tracking, are contributing in a major way to the growth of devices and connections. By 2022, M2M connections will be 51 percent of the total devices and connections.
One of the main contributing factors to growing traffic is consumer video use. One of the main solutions to meet the demands of the increasing demand for bandwidth has long been leveraging Wi-Fi networks, which enables operators to scale capacity to meet their subscribers’ needs. Globally, there will be nearly 549 million public Wi-Fi hotspots by 2022, up from 124 million hotspots in 2017, a fourfold increase. Western Europe had the highest number of hotspots, with 48 percent of the world’s Wi-Fi hotspots in 2017. By 2022, Asia Pacific will have the highest percentage of 47 percent. Public Wi-Fi along with community hotspots are included in the forecast. Community hotspots or homespots have emerged as a potentially significant element of the public Wi-Fi landscape. In this model, subscribers allow part of the capacity of their residential gateway to be open to casual use. The homespots may be provided by a broadband or other provider directly or through a partner. Asia Pacific will lead in adoption of homespots. By 2022, China will lead in total number of homespots, followed by the United States and Japan.
●   Dominance of smartphones as the “communications hub” for social media, video consumption, tracking IoT/digitization applications (et al.), as well as traditional voice. Smartphones will represent 44 percent of global IP traffic by 2022 (up from 18 percent in 2017). This trend demonstrates the effect that smartphones have on how consumers and businesses users access and use the Internet and IP networks.
Sites like Share-A-Sale and Amplifinity provide referral fees. Vendors set the referral fees they're willing to pay and for what services. When the transaction happens, you get paid by the company for introducing a new customer to them. uRefer also allows merchants to set up referral programs for introductions and meetings, in addition to any transactions made.
The next step is to reconcile the Internet, managed IP, and mobile segments of the forecast. The portion of mobile data traffic that has migrated from the fixed network is subtracted from the fixed forecast, and the amount of mobile data traffic offloaded onto the fixed network through dual-mode devices and femtocells is added back to the fixed forecast.
Affiliate marketing has grown quickly since its inception. The e-commerce website, viewed as a marketing toy in the early days of the Internet, became an integrated part of the overall business plan and in some cases grew to a bigger business than the existing offline business. According to one report, the total sales amount generated through affiliate networks in 2006 was £2.16 billion in the United Kingdom alone. The estimates were £1.35 billion in sales in 2005.[19] MarketingSherpa's research team estimated that, in 2006, affiliates worldwide earned US$6.5 billion in bounty and commissions from a variety of sources in retail, personal finance, gaming and gambling, travel, telecom, education, publishing, and forms of lead generation other than contextual advertising programs.[20]
While these models have diminished in mature e-commerce and online advertising markets they are still prevalent in some more nascent industries. China is one example where Affiliate Marketing does not overtly resemble the same model in the West. With many affiliates being paid a flat "Cost Per Day" with some networks offering Cost Per Click or CPM.
Building on the Cisco VNI IPv6-capable devices analysis, the forecast estimates that globally there will be nearly 18.3 billion IPv6-capable fixed and mobile devices by 2022, up from nearly 6 billion in 2017, a CAGR of 26 percent. In terms of percentages, 64 percent of all fixed and mobile networked devices will be IPv6-capable by 2022, up from 32 percent in 2017 (Figure 8).
Blogger, which you can set up for free in less than five minutes, automates Google AdSense so that you can make money with your blog by displaying ads and getting paid when people click on the ads. To make more money, set up an affiliate program (see below) for books, music, and more, and insert your affiliate links whenever you refer to those items. A good strategy to set you on the path to success is selecting a unique topic, writing intelligent copy, and telling all your friends. You'll be off to a better start with a targeted audience.

Sites like Zyoin and WiseStep connect employers with prospective employees, many of whom are already employed and not actively job-hunting via networking. The main benefit is knowing who these qualified candidates are. Rewards for referring a candidate who gets hired range from $50 to potentially several thousand dollars. If you know a stream of job-seekers, you can break into the recruiting business without up-front or overhead costs.
The modern ransomware attack was born from two innovations in the early part of this decade: encryption and bitcoin. Mirai Botnet, WannaCry, Petya, NotPetya attacks were launched one after the other in 2017. With the Mirai Botnet attack in 2017, compromises and hacking took mainstage with exposing vulnerabilities in IoT in relation to home monitoring and devices. However, the concern is beyond the home as well. Vulnerabilities in smartphone apps can also be used to introduce malware. Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication are being enabled with smart cities and next-generation mobile and Wi-Fi standards. Key fob scanning, taking control over air bag systems, and anti-collision systems are all possibilities. Security will remain a key part of the IoT deployment and proliferation.

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File sharing constitutes a large fraction of Internet traffic.[1] The prevalent technology for file sharing is the BitTorrent protocol, which is a peer-to-peer (P2P) system mediated through indexing sites that provide resource directories. The traffic patterns of P2P systems are often described as problematic and causing congestion.[2] According to a Sandvine Research in 2013, Bit Torrent’s share of Internet traffic decreased by 20% to 7.4% overall, reduced from 31% in 2008.[3]
A few countries also have users that currently experience greater than 125 Mbps, paving the path for the future demands of video. Video continues to be of enormous demand in today’s home, but there will be significant bandwidth demands with the video application requirements of the future, even beyond the forecast period of 2022. In Figure 19, a scenario with video applications of the future is explored; today’s bandwidth needs are a sliver of the future needs.
This initial estimation of potential IPv6 traffic is based on the assumptions that IPv6 device capability, IPv6 content enablement, and IPv6 network deployment will keep pace with current trends and may even accelerate during the forecast period. Considering the interdependence of these variables, forecast assumptions could be subject to refinement as our analysis continues.

The next step is to reconcile the Internet, managed IP, and mobile segments of the forecast. The portion of mobile data traffic that has migrated from the fixed network is subtracted from the fixed forecast, and the amount of mobile data traffic offloaded onto the fixed network through dual-mode devices and femtocells is added back to the fixed forecast.


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