●   5G roll-outs provide mobility innovation and new levels of fixed/mobile convergence. By 2022, 22 percent of global Internet traffic will come from mobile (cellular) networks (up from 12 percent in 2017). By 2022, about 3 percent of global mobile devices/connections will be 5G-capable (and nearly 12 percent of global mobile traffic will come from 5G). As expected, mobile carriers from around the world are beginning to introduce trial 5G networks (see 5G Availability Around the World from Lifewire). Many industry experts believe that large-scale 5G deployments will begin to take shape in 2020, when mobile spectrum, standards, profitable business plans and other operational issues are more fully fleshed out.

Internet bandwidth in telecommunication networks has been doubling every 18 months, an observation expressed as Edholm's law.[31] This follows the advances in semiconductor technology, such as metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) scaling, exemplified by the MOSFET transistor, which has shown similar scaling described by Moore's law. In the 1980s, fiber-optical technology using laser light as information carriers accelerated transmission speed and bandwidth of telecommunication circuits. This has led to the bandwidths of communication networks achieving terabit per second transmission speeds.[32]

The most expensive domain name ever sold is LasVegas.com, which was bought in 2005 for a whopping $90 million. While some argue that the most expensive domain name is Cars.com which was valued at $872 million, that claim is a bit deceptive as the sale didn’t just involve the cars.com domain name but an existing business. The LasVegas.com sale involves just the domain name.
Forms of new media have also diversified how companies, brands, and ad networks serve ads to visitors. For instance, YouTube allows video-makers to embed advertisements through Google's affiliate network.[22][23] New developments have made it more difficult for unscrupulous affiliates to make money. Emerging black sheep are detected and made known to the affiliate marketing community with much greater speed and efficiency.[citation needed]
Affiliates discussed the issues in Internet forums and began to organize their efforts. They believed that the best way to address the problem was to discourage merchants from advertising via adware. Merchants that were either indifferent to or supportive of adware were exposed by affiliates, thus damaging those merchants' reputations and tarnishing their affiliate marketing efforts. Many affiliates either terminated the use of such merchants or switched to a competitor's affiliate program. Eventually, affiliate networks were also forced by merchants and affiliates to take a stand and ban certain adware publishers from their network. The result was Code of Conduct by Commission Junction/beFree and Performics,[35] LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum,[36] and ShareASale's complete ban of software applications as a medium for affiliates to promote advertiser offers.[37] Regardless of the progress made, adware continues to be an issue, as demonstrated by the class action lawsuit against ValueClick and its daughter company Commission Junction filed on April 20, 2007.[38]
Cost per mille requires only that the publisher make the advertising available on his or her website and display it to the page visitors in order to receive a commission. Pay per click requires one additional step in the conversion process to generate revenue for the publisher: A visitor must not only be made aware of the advertisement but must also click on the advertisement to visit the advertiser's website.

Although the number of connections is growing 2.4-fold, global M2M IP traffic will grow more than sevenfold over this same period, from 3.7 EB per month in 2017 (3 percent of global IP traffic) to more than 25 EB by 2022 (6 percent of global IP traffic; refer to Figure 12). The amount of traffic is growing faster than the number of connections because of the increase of deployment of video applications on M2M connections and the increased use of applications, such as telemedicine and smart car navigation systems, which require greater bandwidth and lower latency.
Changes in traffic topology are being brought about by the increasing role of Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) in data delivery. CDNs will carry 72 percent of total Internet traffic by 2022 (Figure 24), up from 56 percent in 2017. Although network performance is usually attributed to the speeds and latencies offered by the service provider, the delivery algorithms used by CDNs have an equal if not more significant bearing on video quality.
Broadband speed is a crucial enabler of IP traffic. Broadband-speed improvements result in increased consumption and use of high-bandwidth content and applications. The global average broadband speed continues to grow and will double from 2017 to 2022, from 39.0 Mbps to 75.4 Mbps. Table 4 shows the projected broadband speeds from 2017 to 2022. Several factors influence the fixed broadband-speed forecast, including the deployment and adoption of Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH), high-speed DSL, and cable broadband adoption, as well as overall broadband penetration. Among the countries covered by this study, Japan, South Korea, and Sweden lead within the Cisco VNI countries in terms of broadband speed largely because of their wide deployment of FTTH.
Mobile operators have increased the amount of data they offer consumers with plans in 2018. Some of these plans include data caps in excess of 25GB. Competition is fueling the increase, as operators like to keep up with their peers in offering "the most data" for marketing purposes. With mobile penetration reaching a saturation point in many countries across all regions, the strategy until 2017 was the implementation of tiered plans as a way to monetize data and effectively manage or throttle the top users of traffic. While the top 1 percent of the users continue to consume less data in comparison to five years ago, there has been a resurgence in unlimited plans. In general, data caps affect a larger percentage of mobile users than fixed users. On the fixed networks, data caps continue to increase to match subscribers’ growing appetite for video. In parallel, fixed broadband operators in most countries offered higher broadband speed tiers in 2018 compared with 2017. Chinese operators in particular have hiked fixed broadband speeds, offering in the hundreds of megabits; one even offers 1 Gbps. In the United States, most providers are offering 1 Gbps and one operator offers 2 Gbps. While 10 Gbps offers are elusive to most, fixed operators in Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, UAE and Qatar are offering these higher speed services.
Affiliate marketing is commonly confused with referral marketing, as both forms of marketing use third parties to drive sales to the retailer. The two forms of marketing are differentiated, however, in how they drive sales, where affiliate marketing relies purely on financial motivations, while referral marketing relies more on trust and personal relationships.[citation needed]
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